Live Notes

The Live Notes are the sources and references used in the exhibition catalogue. For readers who have a copy of the catalogue, please click on the following:

Chapter 1
Riding The Japanese Tiger: The Indian National Army

Chapter 2
The Empire Strikes Back

Chapter 3
Surrender: The Nippon Sun Sets

Chapter 4
A New Light in Singapore

Chapter 5
Trials of the War

Chapter 6
The Blood Debt

Chapter 7
Remembering the War Dead

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Chapter 2: The Empire Strikes Back

2.1 Force 136 (136 队)

  1. Oral history interview, 1984, in English, Acc 405 Reel 1.

  2. Chapman, F. Spencer. The Jungle is Neutral. Singapore: Times Books International, 1997. 192-193.

  3. Oral history interview, 1984, in English, Acc 405 Reels 1 & 2.

  4. Tan Chong Tee. Story of a WWII Resistance Fighter: Force 136. Trans. Lee Watt Sim and Clara Show. Singapore: Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 1995. pp. 29-30.

  5. Ibid p.3.

  6. Ibid p.26.

  7. 陈崇智《我与一三六部队》, 1994, p.35.

  8. Oral history interview, 1983, in Mandarin, Acc 254 Reel 4.

  9. Oral history interview, 1983, in Mandarin, Acc 254 Reel 5.

  10. Ibid.

  11. 陈崇智《我与一三六部队》, 1994, p.43.

  12. Tan Chong Tee. Story of a WWII Resistance Fighter: Force 136. Trans. Lee Watt Sim and Clara Show. Singapore: Asiapac Books Pte Ltd, 1995. p.53.

  13. Oral history interview, 1983, in Mandarin, Acc 254 Reels 5 and 6.

  14. Oral history interview, 1983, in Mandarin, Acc 254 Reel 9.

  15. Ibid.

  16. Chapman, F. Spencer. The Jungle is Neutral. Singapore: Times Books International, 1997. pp.201-202.

  17. Oral history interview, 1984, in English, Acc 406 Reel 3; Oral history interview, 1982, in Mandarin, Acc 194 Reel 20.

  18. The National Archives of UK, File Reference HIS/222, November 1944; January & March 1945.

  19. The National Archives of UK, File Reference HIS/221, 18 January 1945; File Reference HIS/222, November & December 1944, February 1945.

  20. Leo Yin Boon. "Force 136: The Malaya Episode", unpublished academic thesis, p.49.


2.2 Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA – 马来亚人民抗日军)

  1. Sima Qiao, et al, Malayan Anti-Japanese Army, pp. 15-16.

  2. Oral history interview, 1984, in English, Acc 405 Reel 1.

  3. Sima Qiao, et al, Malayan Anti-Japanese Army, pp.28-38.

  4. Oral history interview, 2005, in Mandarin, Acc 2977 CD 6.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Ban Kah Choon.Rehearsal for War: Resistance and the Underground War against the Japanese and the Kempeitai 1942-1945. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2002.
    p.115.

  9. Ibid. p.113.

  10. Oral history interview, 1985, in Mandarin, Acc 565 Reel 1.

  11. Oral history interview, 2005, in Mandarin, Acc 2977 CD 6.

  12. Sima Qiao, et al, Malayan Anti-Japanese Army, pp. 40-49.

  13. Oral history interview, 2005, in Mandarin, Acc 2987 CD 3.

  14. According to Japanese statistical figures, however, only 600 Japanese soldiers and 2,000 local policemen were killed, while as many as 2,900 MPAJA members were killed. Source: Ban Kah Choon.Rehearsal for War: Resistance and the Underground War against the Japanese and the Kempeitai 1942-1945. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2002. p.119.

  15. Oral history interview, 1985, in Mandarin, Acc 565 Reel 8.

  16. Oral history interview, 2005, in Mandarin, Acc 2977 CD 6.


2.3 One-Man Army : The Malaya Lion

  1. Sima Qiao, et al, Malayan Anti-Japanese Army, pp. 75-77.

  2. Ban Kah Choon.Rehearsal for War: Resistance and the Underground War against the Japanese and the Kempeitai 1942-1945. Singapore: Horizon Books, 2002. pp.120-121.


2.4 "Operation Jaywick" & "Operation Rimau"

  1. The National Archives of UK, File Reference WO 208/1538, Account of Operation Jaywick, 12 March 1944.

  2. The National Archives of UK, File Reference HS 1/2581, "The Distinguished Service Order – Major (temporary Ivan Lyon, M.B.E. (66175), The Gordon Highlanders".

  3. The National Archives of UK, File Reference HS 1/257, "Operation Jaywick", 25 October 1943, p.1.

  4. The National Archives of UK, File Reference HS 1/2581, "The Distinguished Service Order – Major (temporary Ivan Lyon, M.B.E. (66175), The Gordon Highlanders".

  5. The National Archives of UK, File Reference ADM 1/16678, List of officers awarded the Distinguished Service Order, Distinguished Service Medal and Mention in Despatches, 27 March 1944.

  6. Mallal, Bashir A., ed. The Double Tenth Trial War Crimes Court. Singapore: The Malayan Law Journal Office, 1947. 240.

  7. British Military Administration, File Reference BMA 4/1945, "Double Tenth" report by Commission appointed to record evidence from internees arrested by the Kempeitai on 10 October 1943, S.N. King, M.C.S., Chairman; M.S. Alexander, M.S., Ph.D., Professor of Physics; W.L. Blythe, M.C.S., 3 September 1945.

  8. Ibid.

  9. Mallal, Bashir A., ed. The Double Tenth Trial War Crimes Court. Singapore: The Malayan Law Journal Office, 1947.

  10. British Military Administration, File Reference BMA 4/1945, "Double Tenth" report by Commission appointed to record evidence from internees arrested by the Kempeitai on 10 October 1943, S.N. King, M.C.S., Chairman; M.S. Alexander, M.S., Ph.D., Professor of Physics; W.L. Blythe, M.C.S., 3 September 1945.

  11. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 597 Reel 2-5.

  12. Mallal, Bashir.A., ed. The Double Tenth Trial War Crimes Court in re Lt.-Col. Sumida Haruzo and 20 others. Singapore: The Malayan Law Journal Office, 1947.

  13. Ibid.

  14. The National Archives of UK, File Reference ADM 1/18596, "Missing Personnel of Clandestine Party from Australia", Lt.-Col. L.F.G. Pritchard, O.C. "E" Group South, 13 October 1945.

  15. The National Archives of UK, File Reference ADM 1/15896, "Interrogation of Interpreter Furuta 21 Oct 45", Annex to the report on "Investigations regarding missing personnel of clandestine party launched from Australia 11 Sept 44" by Lt.-Col. L.F.G. Pritchard, O.C. "E" Group South, 23 October 145.

  16. The National Archives of UK, File Reference ADM 1/18596, Report by Captain R.S. Ross, R.A.M.C., of "E" Group, dated 22 November 1945 on the exhumation of POWs and internees who were executed by the Japanese in Singapore.

  17. The Straits Times, 24 August 1994. "2 WWII Soldiers' Remains to be Buried on Saturday."

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