Live Notes

The Live Notes are the sources and references used in the exhibition catalogue. For readers who have a copy of the catalogue, please click on the following:

Chapter 1
Riding The Japanese Tiger: The Indian National Army

Chapter 2
The Empire Strikes Back

Chapter 3
Surrender: The Nippon Sun Sets

Chapter 4
A New Light in Singapore

Chapter 5
Trials of the War

Chapter 6
The Blood Debt

Chapter 7
Remembering the War Dead

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Chapter 1: Riding The Japanese Tiger: The Indian National Army

1.1 Formation of the Indian National Army

  1. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), File Reference XL 3138 Box 42, "Malaya. Part II", 1 October 1943, p.2; The British Library, File Reference L/PJ/12/761, India Office Records: Public & Judicial Department, letter to G Hall, Colonial Office, by F. Gimson, Governor of Singapore, 6 September 1946, p.1, Microfilm no. NAB 1291.

  2. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.1.

  3. Fujiwara, Iwaichi. "F. Kikan: Japanese Army Intelligence Operations in Southeast Asia during World War II." Trans. Akashi Yoji. Hong Kong: Heinemann Education Books (Asia) Limited, 1983. pp.181-186.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Ibid. p.191.

  6. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Records Series XL 11894, "Prisoner of War Camps", 15 June 1945, p.3.

  7. Ibid. p.1.

  8. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.1.

  9. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, statements by Lieut.Col. Iwakuro on the sacking of Mohan Singh, "Annexure 'C': Statement of the Chief of the Iwakuro Kikar"; "Annexure 'E': Special Order of the Day by General Mohan Singh G.O.C. Indian National Army, Dated 21st Dec 1942. Warning Order – Dissolution of the Indian National Army", 21 December 1942.

  10. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.2.

  11. Ibid. p.3.

  12. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 546 Reel 16.

  13. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.3.

  14. Ghosh, K.K. The Indian National Army: Second Front of the Indian Independence Movement. Meerut, Meenakshi Prakashan, 1969. pp. 127-128.

1.2 Arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose

  1. The Syonan Sinbun, 3 July 1943. "Subhas Chandra Bose Arrives In Syonan."

  2. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.3.

  3. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 553 Reel 20.

  4. The Straits Times, 8 January 2010. "President hopes new book will 'set record straight.'"

1.3 The Rani of Jhansi

  1. Oral history interview, 1990, in English, Acc 1182 Reel 2.

  2. Ibid.

  3. Ibid.

  4. Ibid.

  5. The Syonan Sinbun, 22 October 1943. "Subhas Bose Opens Rani Of Jhansi Training Camp Amid Great Patriotism."

  6. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 553 Reel 21.



1.4 Birth of the Provisional Azad Hind Government

  1. The Syonan Sinbun, 22 October 1943. "Provisional Government of Azad Hind Formally Set Up."

  2. The British Library, File Reference L/PJ/12/761, India Office Records: Public & Judicial Department, letter to G Hall, Colonial Office, by F Gimson, Governor of Singapore, 6 September 1946, p.1, Microfilm no. NAB 1291.

  3. Imperial War Museum, File Reference IWM 88/33/1, Papers of Edward Llewellyn Sawyer, officer of the Royal Regiment of Artillery in liaison with loyal Indian Army prisoners-of-war, "The Growth of the Indian National Army and the General Conditions of Indian Prisoners of War in Singapore from 1942 to 1945", 15 August 1945, p.3.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 553 Reel 20.

  6. The British Library, File Reference L/PJ/12/761, India Office Records: Public & Judicial Department, letter to G Hall, Colonial Office, by F Gimson, Governor of Singapore, 6 September 1946, p.2, Microfilm no. NAB 1291.

  7. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 553 Reel 21.


1.5 Chalo Dhili : "Give me blood and I promise you freedom"

  1. Bose, Subhas Chandra. Chalo  Delhi: Writing and Speeches 1943-1945. Ed. Bose, Sisir K. and Sugata Bose. Calcutta: Netaji Research Bureau, 2007. 211.

  2. Oral history interview, 1983, in English, Acc 418 Reel 5.

  3. Oral history interview, 1981, in English, Acc 127 Reel 5.

  4. Oral history interview, 1990, in English, Acc 1182 Reel 3.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Bose, Subhas Chandra. Chalo  Delhi: Writing and Speeches 1943-1945. Ed. Bose, Sisir K. and Sugata Bose. Calcutta: Netaji Research Bureau, 2007. 408.

  7. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 546 Reels 15 and 20.

  8. The National Archives of UK, File Reference FO 371/121012, report by the Department of Health in Taipei dated 27 June 1956; The Syonan Shimbun, 24 August 1945. "Netaji Dies in Plane Crash."

  9. The Straits Times, 19 April 2007. "Controversy over Bose's ashes simmers."


1.6 Trial of the INA

  1. Oral history interview, 1990, in English, Acc 1182.

  2. The British Library, File Reference L/PJ/12/761, India Office Records: Public & Judicial Department, letter to G Hall, Colonial Office, by F. Gimson, Governor of Singapore, 6 September 1946, p.2, Microfilm no. NAB 1291.

  3. Oral history interview, 1990, in English, Acc 1182 Reel 3.

  4. Oral history interview, 1985, in English, Acc 553 Reels 18 and 19.

  5. Oral history interview, 1983, in English, Acc 354 Reel 8.


Box Story : The Indian National Army War Memorial

  1. Bose, Romen. The End of the War: Singapore's Liberation and the Aftermath of the Second World War. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2005. 151.

  2. The National Archives of UK, File Reference WO 172/7138, "War Diary for Intelligence Summary September 1945", Sheet 2; The Straits Times, 6 September 1945. "Loyal Indians Blow Up I.N.A. Memorial".

  3. Nitin A. Gokhale, Focus Northeast "A Memorial For Netaji", 25 January 2005. Column written for Tehelka a weekly news magazine from India.

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