Section 1 Looking Back - Political Milestones Leading to the Birth of the
September 1945: Returning to British Rule
Page 10, para 1: Singapore: An Illustrated History,
1941-1984 (Singapore: Information Division, Ministry
of Culture, 1984), p. 95.
Page 10, para 2: Ibid., p. 98.
Page 11, para 1: Ibid., pp. 88-89, 91, 110, 117,123-124.
And Lee Geok Boi, What if? :Post-war Choices in Singapore
(Singapore: Singapore Heritage Society, 1995), pp. 79, 97,
Page 11, para 6: Singapore: An Illustrated History,
May 1959: Singapore became Self-governing
Page 12, para 1: Singapore: An Illustrated History,
pp. 152-153, 157-158.
Page 12, para 2: Ibid., p. 179.
Page 12, para 4: Colony of Singapore Annual Report 1957
(Singapore: Government Printing Office, 1959), p. 4.
Page 13, para 1: Singapore: An Illustrated History,
Box Story: State Symbols
Page 14, para 1: Quote is extracted from Oral History Centre's
interview with Dr Toh Chin Chye in 1989, Accession number
001063, reel 1.
Page 14, para 2: Quote is extracted from "State Arms
and Flag and State National Anthem" in Legislative
Assembly Debates State of Singapore Official Report, First
Session of the First Legislative Assembly, Vol. 11,
11 Nov 1959.
Page 14, para 3: Ibid.
September 1963: Merger with Malaya
Page 16, para 1: Lee Geok Boi, et. al, Singapore: Journey
into Nationhood (Singapore: National Heritage Board:
Landmark Books, 1998), pp. 66-68. And Singapore: An Illustrated
History, pp. 221-226.
Page 17, para 1: Singapore: An Illustrated History,
Page 17, para 2: Ibid., p. 252.
August 1965: Birth of the Republic of Singapore
Page 18, para 2: Singapore: Journey into Nationhood,
Page 18, para 2: Immediately following Singapore’s Separation from Malaysia on 9 Aug 1965, media reports projected a bleak outlook for the nation. Examples of media headlines and extracts:
The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 Aug 1965" Separation Poses Grave Problems for Island"
"If now there is any threat of mass unemployment - and it is difficult to see how this can be avoided - Singapore could become what it has been often called: an outpost of Peking. An Independent Singapore was not regarded as viable three years ago. Nothing in current situation suggests that it is any more viable today."
The Sydney Morning Herald, 10 Aug 1965 "Dark Outlook in Malaysia"
"It is doubtful whether an independent Singapore can survive as a viable state even in a form of confederation: it is certain that the strong Chinese Communist elements in Singapore will now be encouraged to seek control".
The Canberra Times, 23 Nov 1965 ''Singapore's First 100 Days"
"Mr Lee has rudely shattered the post - separation euphoria which swept dollar-conscious Singapore and roughly disposed of the fatally easy assumption that Singapore, once freed from the dragging chain of an easy-going inefficient Malaysia, could float out on the tide of inevitable prosperity and assured security...The real threats to Singapore's survival are economic and external, not domestic".
The Atlantic Monthly (issue Nov 1965) "Rough Times Ahead"
"Singapore is now isolated in Malaysia, and economically confined and conscribed. Whether that isolation can be effectively broken down, or broken down sufficiently to invalidate the reasons that lay behind Lee's argument, is doubtful. The political trend in Kuala Lumpur, the continual hostility between principal figures in the federal government and Lee himself, the inhibition of foreign capital to invest in Singapore, which lacks the much broader base that Malaysia afforded, the Indonesian confrontation, the reorientation of regional trade, the nature and size of Singapore's population, the total lack of indigenous resources other than labor, Lee's own uncertainties coupled with the long-range British uncertainly over the military base all suggest that difficult and dangerous times are ahead."
Page 21, para 2: Report of the Constitutional Commission
1966 (Singapore: Government Publications Bureau, 1966).
Box Story: First 10 Cabinet Ministers
Pg 34 – Dr Goh Keng Swee was Singapore’s first and third Minister for Finance.
- Minister for Finance – 5 Jun 1959 to 8 Aug 1965
- Minister for Finance – 17 Aug 1967 to 10 Aug 197
Box Story: Proclamation of Singapore
Page 22, para 1: Lee Kuan Yew, The Singapore Story:
Memoirs of Lee Kuan Yew (Singapore: Singapore Press
Holdings: Times Editions Pte Ltd, 1998), pp. 631-632.
Page 22, para 2: Leslie Fong, "The Week Before Separation",
in Singapore 25 Years: A Straits Times Special, National
Day, 9 Aug 1990, ed. Leslie Fong (Singapore: Straits
Times Press, 1990), pp. 5-10. And Lee, The Singapore
Story, pp. 628-647.
Page 23, para 2: Quote is extracted from Oral History Centre's
interview with Mr E W Barker in 1982, Accession number 000193,
Singapore in August 1965
Page 25, para 1: Singapore Year Book 1965 (Singapore:
Information Division, Ministry of Culture: Government Printing
Office, 1966), p. 65.
Population and Labour Force
Page 26, para 1: Singapore Year Book 1965, p. 65.
And State of Singapore Development Plan 1961-1964
(Singapore: Ministry of Finance, 1961), p. 2.
Page 26, para 3, line 1: Lee Kuan Yew, From Third World
To First The Singapore Story: 1965-2000 (Singapore:
Singapore Press Holdings: Times Editions, 2000) p. 23.
Page 26, para 3: Singapore Year Book 1965, p. 172.
Page 27, para 1, line 1: 1965 literacy rate is in Keynote
address by Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong of the Republic
of Singapore at the Jeddah Economic Forum on Mon, 21 Feb
2005, at 1000 hrs, at Hilton Hall, Jeddah Hi. p. 2. And
1957 literacy rate is in P. Arumainathan, Report on the
Census of Population 1970, Singapore, Vol. I (Singapore:
Department of Statistics: Government Printing Office, 1973),
Page 27, para 1, line 2: Speech by the Minister for Education,
Mr. Ong Pang Boon, at the Plenary Session of the UNESCO
Conference of Asian Education Ministers in Bangkok on November
23, 1965, p. 6.
Page 27, para 1: Singapore Year Book 1965, pp. 225-230.
Page 27, para 2: Statement by Mr. Yong Nyuk Lin, Minister
for Health, at the Press Conference held at the Administrative
Headquarters of the Hawkers Department, Junction of Scotts
Road with Newton Circus on Wednesday, 9th February, 1966
at 1600 hours, p. 1.
Internal Security and Defence
Page 28, para 1: Elaine Lim, "1965 - Independence
of Singapore" on Ministry of Defence website, http://www.mindef.gov.sg/content/imindef/about_us/history/overview.html
Who Saved Raffles?
Page 28, para 2: Quote is extracted from Oral History Centre's
interview with Dr Albert Winsemius in 1982, Accession number
000246, reel 2.
Finance and Economy
Page 29, para 3: Quote is extracted from Oral History Centre's
interview with Dr Albert Winsemius in 1982, Accession number
000246, reel 9.
Page 30, para 1: State of Singapore Development Plan
1961-1964 (Singapore: Ministry of Finance, 1961), p.
121. And Housing & Development Board Annual Report
1965 (Singapore: Housing & Development Board: Government
Printing Office, 1966), p. 50.
Page 30, para 2, line 1: Housing & Development Board
Annual Report 1965, p. 8.
Page 30, para 2: Singapore Year Book 1965, p. 65.
Page 30, para 3: Housing & Development Board Annual
Report 1965, p. 10, 21. And Housing & Development
Board Annual Report 1964, p. 29.
Page 31, para 1: History of aviation in Singapore on Civil
Aviation Authority of Singapore website, http://www.caas.gov.sg/
Page 31, para 2: Tourist Promotion Board Annual Report
1965 (Singapore: Tourist Promotion Board: Government
Printing Office, 1966), p. 8.
Page 31, para 3 & 4: History of air transport industry
in Singapore and Changi Airport on Singapore Changi Airport
And Channel Newsasia, 9 Jan 2008, "Singapore Changi Airport's Terminal 3 opens for business"
Page 33, para 1: Singapore Year Book 1965, p. 121.
And Singapore Year Book 1995 (Singapore: Ministry
of Information and the Arts, 1995), p. 113. And Speech by
George Yeo, Minister for Trade & Industry at the Official
Groundbreaking Ceremony of the Basell Eastern Pte Ltd's
Styrene Monomer/ Propylene Oxide (SM/PO) Complex at Jurong
Island on 11 Jan 2000 at 11.15am, p. 2.
Box Story: Constitution of Singapore
Page 36, para 2: Kelvin Y.L. Tan, An Introduction to
Singapore's Constitution (Singapore: Talisman Publishing
Pte Ltd, 2005), pp. 22-23.
Page 36, para 4: Report of the Constitutional Commission
1966, pp. 7-12. And Tan, An Introduction to Singapore's
Constitution, p. 141.
Page 36, para 5: Chan Heng Chee, "Legislature and
Legislators", in Government and Politics of Singapore,
ed. Jon S.T. Quah, Chan Heng Chee and Seah Chee Meow (Singapore:
Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 73.
Page 36, para 6 & 7: "Speech by Prime Minister
Goh Chok Tong at the Official Opening of the Commonwealth
Parliamentary Association (CPA) 1999 Mid-Year Ex-Co Meeting,
4 May 1999" ,on Ministry of Foreign Affairs website, http://www.mfa.gov.sg/content/mfa/
Box Story: Water Supply
Page 38, para 1, line 5-6: C. O. Blagden, "Singapore
Prior to 1819", in One hundred years of Singapore,
Vol. One, ed. Walter Makepeace, Gilbert E. Brooke, Roland
St. J. Braddell; with an introduction by C.M. Turnbull (Singapore:
Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 10.
Page 38, para 1, line 2-9: Munshi Abdullah, "The Hikayat
Abdullah" translated by A. H. Hill in Journal of
the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 42,
1 (1969), p. 88.
Page 38, para 1, line 12-14: "Letter from Farquhar
to Raffles, 2 Sep 1819" in Straits Settlements Records,
Singapore: Letters to Bencoolen, L10 (Feb 1819 - Jun
1820), NL 57.
Page 38, para 1, line 14-21: F. J. Hallifax, "Municipal
Government", in One hundred years of Singapore,
Vol. One, p. 326.
Page 38, para 2: Proceedings of the Legislative Council
of the Straits Settlements, 27 Jun 1870. And Hallifax, "Municipal
Government", in One hundred years of Singapore,
Vol. One, pp. 326-327.
Page 39, para 1, line 1-6: Minutes of the Proceedings of
Municipal Commissioners, 17 May 1907. And Minutes of the
Municipal Sub-Committee, 10 Nov 1922.
Page 39, para 1, line 6-10: Singapore Public Utilities
Board, Yesterday and Today: The Story of Public Electricity,
Water and Gas Supplies in Singapore (Singapore: Published
for the Public Utilities Board by Times Books International,
1985), p. 13.
Page 39, para 2: Ibid., pp. 15, 32.
Page 39, para 3: Municipality of Singapore Water Department
Annual Report 1942, pp. 3-4, 12.
Page 39, para 4: Singapore Public Utilities Board, Yesterday
and Today, pp. 31-33.
Page 40, para 1, line 1-3: State of Singapore Annual
Report 1961 (Singapore: Government Printing Office,
1963), pp. 269-270.
Page 40, para 1, line 3-8: Lee Poh Onn, "Water Management
Issues in Singapore", paper presented at Water in Mainland
Southeast Asia, 29 November - 2 December 2005, Siem Reap,
Cambodia organised by International Institute for Asian
Studies (IIAS), Netherlands, and the Center for Khmer Studies
(CKS), Cambodia, p. 9. The paper is also available online,
Page 44, para 1, line 4-5: Lee, "Water Management
Issues in Singapore", p. 1.
Page 44, para 2, line 1-3: Public Utilities Board Annual
Report 1998 (Singapore: Public Utilities Board, 1999),
Page 44, para 2, line 3-6: Public Utilities Board Annual
Report 2002 (Singapore: Public Utilities Board, 2003),
Page 44, para 2, line 4:
When did the idea of NEWater first come about? Lee Ek Tieng, Chairman of Public Utilities Board (1978 – 1996), explained, in his oral history interview, Accession number 002832, reel 6:
“…way back in the ‘70s, we… built a industrial water plant in Jurong [where] we also built a small research plant or experimental plant [to test] how to treat waste water from the sewage treatment works, that is the effluent water, using various so-called modern techniques, reverse osmosis, ion exchange methods, until drinking water standard. We did that in those days but then it was so expensive. It cost something like seven, eight dollars per thousand gallon. It was just not economic at all...
[Then around 1999], we decided that we need to relook again… technology has moved on … they have developed micro fibres… in the form of small plastic tubes, very fine tubes, where you are able to pass water… to remove the suspended solid and filter out. But leaving the salts behind. Then the water goes through the reverse osmosis in a series of process and you remove the salt. And the beauty of this system is that… it is very cost effective. Secondly… you are able to build in module so that you don't need the huge size of traditional water works. So the most important is you save a lot of land… The biggest problem was whether this water would be acceptable to the population. So, before we started, we set up a committee consisting of foreign experts both from the foreign universities, as well from the USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency] people, to advise us and also to monitor, to study the health effects of the water…. To cut the story short, after we built the first plant, all these things done, we found that there is little or no ill effect. The quality of water actually was much better than the normal PUB treated water from the pipe. But you have got to convince the population that this water is drinkable. It is actually very soft water, softer than the tap water that is in front of you, that is PUB water. Because this has got something like 50 milligrams of various salt and so on but that one only has got 10….
Before I left we tested it and things went all right. I told the government that look, I wouldn’t worry anymore about water in Singapore because there is a breakthrough in technology. It is a question whether people would accept it. And lo and behold, to my surprise on National Day the PM [Prime Minister], SM [Senior Minister] and the Ministers all drank NEWater on the National Day [parade celebrations]. Incidentally the term NEWater was coined by my committee, of which I chaired. One of the things I told them was, you must be able to market and sell the water. No point telling everybody that your water is safe, but people don’t believe you…. I remember [having a] one hour meeting just to go through the various names, how shall we call [the] water. You must not use words like reclaimed water. So, finally we came out with the term, NEWater.
Page 45, para 1: Public Utilities Board Annual Report
2003 (Singapore: Public Utilities Board, 2004), p. 10.